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Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography

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A bibliography is a list of texts and other resources pertaining to a particular topic. It is different to a reference list which itemises only the references cited in a document.

Creating a bibliography is one of the first tasks when beginning a research project.

Begin by sourcing material through the library databases. Ask the library staff for assistance if needed..

You may wish to use EndNote to keep your resources in order. EndNote is bibliographic software which allows you to

• keep all the information about resources in the same place
• make notes about resources
• load resources directly into your bibliography
• automatically cite the resources in your own writing

Refer to the EndNote guide available online.


Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of references with an annotation to explain how the particular resource relates to the research project or assignment. Creating an annotated bibliographys is often a preliminary step to writing a literature review.

Annotations include a brief summary of the source’s content, a brief assessment of its usefulness and relevance, and a comment on its credibility, scope and limitations.

What does an annotated bibliography look like?:

• full citations
• one or two paragraphs beneath each citation according to your assignment requirements
• presented in alphabetical order
• formal academic writing style



Sewell, W. (1989). Weaving a program: Literate programming in WEB. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Sewell explains code language and includes certain lines of code as examples. Sewell's explanation of characters and how they work in the programming of a webpage is useful for its specific examples. He also describes how to make lists and a title section. This will be very useful because all webpages have a title section and this topic will form a significant section of my research. This author also introduces Pascal which may be helpful for overview or introductiony information. This book will not be the basis of my manual but will add some key points.

(“Writing an Annotated Bibliography,” 2008)


Stoddart, W. S. (1972). Art and architecture in medieval France. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

This text explores the history of Romanesque and Gothic art, with emphasis on the latter period. It is especially useful for its discussion of architectural techniques. Also included is an analysis of past scholarship of the periods, which is relevant to the question’s focus on the interpretation of the word ‘Romanesque’. However, much of the discussion is outdated, and its overview of the scholarship needed to be compared with the related material in Calkins.

(“Writing an Annotated Bibliography,” 2008)


Further examples can be found at:



Material adapted from the following sources:

Annotated bibliography. (2014). Retrieved from

How to prepare an annotated bibliography. (2013). Retrieved from

Student Learning Support Centre. Victoria University of Wellington. (n.d.). Writing a literature review. Retrieved from


Useful Guide

Literature Review



Tolich, M. N., & Davidson, C. (2011). An introduction to research methods: Getting started. Auckland, New Zealand:

Writing an annotated bibliography. (2008). Retrieved from


Updated January 2016