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He tīmatanga kōrero hai ārahi: He kupu whakawhiti me ētahi atu rerenga kupu mā ngā tuhituhi ngaio

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He kupu whakataki hai mātātapu

To introduce

Mā tēnei tuhinga roa e whakapuaki he kōrero hei…

This essay will state…

Tuatahi, me mātua…

Firstly, it is important to…

Ko ngā kaupapa hei whakawhānuitanga, ko…

The themes/factors/elements/aspects that will be discussed at length are…

...kua whakatakotoria…
…kua whakaritea…

…has been defined as…
…has been determined as…

Ko ngā tirohanga ki... ka timata mai i te... ki te…

Views on... range from… to…

Hai tērā take…
Hai tērā kaupapa…

With regard to…

Ko te whakaaro kei te…

The notion is that…

 

Hai whakatakoto i ngā whakaaro hira, whakaaro Māori

To present common/widespread ideas

Hai tēra kaupapa…
Hai tēra āhuatanga…

In the matter of…

E ai ki ngā whakaaro o mua…
E ai ki ngā whakaaro o mai anō…

The traditional interpretation…

Mārakerake te kitea atu…
Mārakereke ana te kitea atu…

A clear case of…

Ko te kaupapa matua…
Ko te kaupapa whakaaro mātaamua…

A leading tenet of… (principle/opinion)
The primary notion…

E kiia ana…

It is said…

E mārama ana…

It is understandable…

Tārake ana te kitea…

It is clear to see…

 

Hai whakatakoto i ngā whakaaro tōmua

To present prior/background ideas

I runga i tērā whakaaro…

In theory…
Based on the notion of…

E ai ki ngā whakaaro o mua…
E ai ki ngā whakaaro o mai anō …

The traditional interpretation…

I taua wā rā…

For that particular period…

E ai kī tēna, nā reira tonu te…

Accordingly…

Mai i ēnei āhuatanga, kua mārama mai te huarahi…
Mai i ēnei whakatakotoranga, kua mārama mai nei te kaupapa…
Mai i ēnei kaupapa matua, kua mārama mai te pūtake…

Given these facts, it is apparent that…
With these determinations, it is clear that…

With these primary factors, it is evident that…

Ko ngā tirohanga ki… ka tīmata mai i te… ki te…

Views on… range from… to…

 

Hai whakaatu i tētahi tūhonotanga me tētahi hua rānei

To show relationship or outcome

Ko ngā painga…
Ko ngā hua ko te…
Ko ngā hua o te…

The advantages of…
The benefits are…
The rewards of…

Ko ngā whakararu ko te…
Ko ngā whakararu o te…

The disadvantages of…
The disadvantages of…

Mā tēnei e whakaatu……

The evidence shows that…

Mārakerake te kite atu…
Mārakereke ana te kite atu…

It is apparent that…
It is obvious that…

He nui tonu ngā āhuatanga ka puta mai i…

Much can be gained from…

Nā tērā… ka taea pea te kī he…

Considering that… we can assume that…

Mai i ēnei āhuatanga, kua mārama mai te huarahi…
Mai i ēnei whakatakotoranga, kua mārama mai nei te kaupapa…
Mai i ēnei kaupapa matua, kua mārama mai te pūtake…

Given these facts, it is apparent that…
With these determinations, it is clear that…

With these primary factors, it is evident that…

Ka kitea ai…

It can be seen that…

Mā ēnei mea katoa ka…
Kō ēnei mea katoa ka…
Mai i ēnei mea katoa ka puta ko…

All these factors contribute to…
All these factors contribute to…
Given these factors…

Ko tēra whakaaturanga e tohu ana…
Ko tēra taunakitanga e tohu ana…

The evidence suggests…
The recommendation indicates…

 

Hai whakataurite i ngā whakaaro me ngā mea rānei

To compare & contrast

Heoi anō…
Otirā…

However, on the other hand…
Nevertheless…

Manohi anō…

On the other hand…

Waihoki ka…
Engari anō tēnei…

Whereas…
While this…

Hai tā tēnei… ki tērā…

Comparing this with…

Mai i tēnei nei… ki tērā…

In comparison…

Ko te rerekētanga, ko te…

In contrast…

… e pā ana ki…

Relating to…
Regarding…
Pertaining to…

 

Hai whakatauira

To give examples

Inarā…

Specifically…

Hai tauira…

For example…

Ko tētahi tauira…
Ko ētahi tauira…

One example is…
Some examples are…

... hei whakatauira i te …

… illustrates that…

Hei te whakatinanatanga…

In practice...

 

Hai tāpiri i ngā whakaaro

To add ideas

Waihoki ka…

Furthermore…
Likewise…
Additionally…

Ko tētahi mea anō hoki, ko …

Another aspect of…

Heoi anō…
Ahakoa…

Nevertheless…
However…

Nā reira i…
I runga i tērā…

Thus it is…

Ko te tino māharahara kē, kei...

The major concern…

Ko tētahi kaupapa matua anō hoki ko te…

Another essential point…

I kōnei…
I tēnei wā…

At this point…

Mai i tērā tirohanga…
Mai i tēra mātaitanga…
Mai i tēra arotakenga…

After examining…
From that analysis…
From that investigation…

Ko ngā painga…
Ko ngā hua ko te…
Ko ngā hua o te…

The advantages of…
The benefits of…
The rewards of…

Ko ngā whakararu ko te…
Ko ngā whakararu o te…

The disadvantages of…
The difficulties of…

Nā tērā… ka taea pea te kī he…

Considering that… we can assume that…

Moroki noa nei…

Up until now…
Up until this point in time…

E āta…
Me āta…
Ka āta…
Kua āta…
Kei te āta…
Kei te āta koinā…
Kei te āta koirā…

Specifically…
Deliberately…
Pointedly…
Considered…
Carefully…

E pēnei ana…
E tūturu ana…
E motuhake ana…
Hāngai pū ana…

Specifically…
Distinctly…
Of direct relevance…
Of absolute significance…

 

Hai whakaatu i ngā whakaaro me te kōrero rānei o ētahi atu tāngata

To present others’ ideas

E ai ki a…
E kī ana…

According to…

Hai tā…

According to…

... e whakapae ana…

… claims that…

Ko te kī a…
Ka kī a…

States that…

Ko (mea) e kī ana…

… states that...

Ko te kaupapa whakaaro o… e kī ana…
Ko te kaupapa whakaaro o… e kī pēnei ana…

…theory of… states that…

E ai ki te whakamārama a…

As explained by…

Ki tā... e kī ana…

… theory of… states that

 

He kupu whakataunga hai whakatepe

To conclude

I te mutunga atu…
Hei te tōnga o te rā…

In the end…
At the end of the day…

Mai i tēra tirohanga…
Mai i tēra mātaitanga…
Mai i tēra arotakenga…

After examining…
From that analysis…
From that investigation…

Hai kōrero whakamutunga…

In conclusion…

Hai whakakapi/whakatepe…

In conclusion…

Koirā tonu te…
Koirā tonu ngā...

Basically…

Ka taea tonutia te kī…
Ko te whakatau pea…

One could conclude…
One settlement may…

I kōnei…
I tēnei wā…

At this point…
At this time…

Hai whakarāpopoto…

In summary…

Hai kōrero whakamutunga ko te…

Finally…

*Note that Ngāti Kahungunu dialect has been followed with the use of ‘hai’. This can be replaced with ‘hei’ in any of the above examples.

Adapted from an original resource developed by Nanny Materoa Haenga. “E te Whāea o Te Aho a Māui, e kore rawa koe e warewaretia. Ka whakamīharo atu mo tō mātauranga moroki e tohatoha ana ki a mātau mō ake tonu.”

A special thanks to Kare Tipa for her guidance in updating this precious resource. “Hāpaitia te ara tika pūmau ai te rangatiratanga mō ngā uri whakatipu.”